Full Citation Guide: APA, MLA, Chicago & Harvard Styles


It is important to note that a citation is not just about great facts, but also about where you were able to find those facts and how you interpret it. Find out how to paraphrase in APA and MLA so that you get your wording right from the start. If you are starting from a zero base and need to gather as much information about what is expected from you when doing your citation, we got you covered.

You would usually include a chapter of two at the end of your written work that is used for references or a bibliography. In the references list, you will include the quotes and paraphrased research of an author. Find an online paraphrase that allows you to do your paraphrasing free of charge. With the bibliography, you would include all the sources you used to find information, even if you do not include this in your citation. It is the reading you did to educate yourself on the topic. This takes the guess work out of it. Here are some guidelines for writing your citation.

Different referencing styles

  1. APA: An APA is where you focus on the date and time of an author’s findings. You will specifically state when the author discovered their findings, who the author was and the circumstances around the time of the discovery.
  2. MLA: This is a very popular referencing style for citations and is usually used by arts and humanities students.
  3. Chicago: This style is usually used by history and economic students and is similar to APA referencing style.
  4. Harvard: Also used by humanities students, this referencing style is similar to APA. Even though this style is connected to the USA, it is also popular in the UK as well as Australia.

We are going to look at the Harvard citation referencing styles first. There are two types of citations.

  1. In-text citations

This is when you include your reference in the body of your text. It is especially used when directly quoting a source. Here is an example of what that would look like.

During my years in World War II, I never lost hope. (Author’s Name, Year)

  1. Reference List

Many students opt to include a list at the end of their findings, which many seem like a neater way of doing a citation. This is how you would structure your reference list.

Author Name (Year) Name of source

Chicago referencing styles are not very different from Harvard. Here are the two referencing styles used.

  1. Footnotes / Endnotes

At the end of your citation, you are required to include a list of the sources you used to complete your citation. This is a popular style, because of the simplicity in doing so. Here is an example of how you would list a source.

First and last name of an author, Title of the Book (Which city the book was written in and the year of publication) which pages were cited.

  1. Bibliography

A bibliography is used by many students in the USA as well as abroad. Here is an example of a bibliography entry.

Author’s Name, Book Title as Subtitle, City it was published in, Publisher, Date it was published


There are many referencing styles you can use to complete your citation, but Harvard and Chicago’s styles are definitely two of the more popular choices. The idea is that you give the reference where it’s due and to not present someone else’s work as your own. As long as you know the structure of your referencing style and include all the necessary information, you should not have a problem with plagiarism. Good luck on your citation.

Eva Read is a professional writer and a content manager. She find inspiration in music, yoga and books. Her life motto is “Opportunities don’t happen. You create them.”

Eva Read

Eva Read is a professional writer and a content manager. She find inspiration in music, yoga and books. Her life motto is "Opportunities don't happen. You create them."